For you who don't know who is Abraham Lincoln, he was the 16th President of the United states of America and one of its greatest leaders. He served two terms, during which the civil war broke out and he was the one to end it. He preserved the country union, reformed the constitution and ended slavery, and many more great actions for which he deserved to be one of the greatest through America's history.

Anyway, we're not discussing here his
political or military triumphs, but his personal accomplishments.  This is about Abraham Lincoln as an everyday person who possessed the qualities of a great leader, utilized what he had to achieve his goal that he always aspired.

One of his most-told about qualities was listening; he always "listened" to others even those opposing him, and after listening carefully to all sides of the story and opinions, only then he would make his decision. He didn't listen to his opponents only, but to all types of people, especially the poor and commons whom he loved and considered family and being one of them; they even used to call him Honest Abe.

Another leader-needed characteristic is - let's call it honesty, aside from the usual honesty we all know and think about - he was honest in giving credit of success to those who deserve it and sharing the blames of failure even though he was the leader of the nation and with the highest rank, he would admit his faults as being part of the country "management team" and being their head.

Of course he had some personal traits and talents that he worked on and which helped him to get where he wanted, like his sense of humor, his great speeches that are still of the few great oratories of all time. These talents and abilities that people can work on and develop, he used in another important aspect as a leader, which is communicating the vision and goals he had to his people, all types of peoples, common and highly educated people. He knew it was important to keep things simple in order for the majority of people to understand and thus support him.

He knew what and whom to delegate responsibilities to; he never thought of leading into every little detail of the nation, but rather chose the right people for the right positions and he would always communicate to them his trust and confidence in doing the right things. He would always mail his generals about what he sees is right and his vision and tell them they have the authority to take the actions they see as valid since they are more aware and qualified than he is in these matters.

Those are just a few of his leading qualities that one can learn from him.

And in short, there's no better place to study what makes people stand out and be the unique persons we know, admire, and appreciate, other than History.


What is yoga?

It is the oldest physical discipline in existence. The exact origins of yoga are unknown, but it is thought to be at least five thousand years old. The earliest evidence of yoga can be traced back to about 3000 B.C. The original purpose of the postures and breathing exercises was to bring stability and relaxation so practitioners could prepare for the rigors of meditation, sitting still and alert for long periods of time.

The word yoga has its roots in the Sanskrit language and means to merge, join or unite. Yoga is a form of exercise based on the belief that the body and breath are intimately connected with the mind. By controlling the breath and holding the body in steady poses, yoga creates harmony. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotions and is a tool that allows us to withdraw from the chaos of the world and find a quiet space within.

Is Yoga a Religion?

Yoga does not meet the traditional definitions of a religion. Rather than broadcasting a philosophy or doctrine of its own, yoga is a physical and psychological discipline that combines the learning and meditation.

Because of its roots in Eastern religion and mythology, yoga has often been associated with the Hindu religion. While both Hinduism and yoga have their roots in India, yoga is an independent tradition. Its separate physical and psychological processes have no connection with religious beliefs. Additionally, dedicated yoga practice has been found to enhance the religious practice or beliefs of practitioners, whatever their current beliefs, “ like fasting , praying moves , standing and kneeling , in both Christianity and Islam “.

While yoga is not a religion, there are, however, a set of ethics associated with it which complements the practice of yoga. This set of yoga ethic principles include five rules which are: non-violence; truthfulness; non-stealing; chastity; and non-greed. Also there are five restrictions which are: purity; contentment; self-discipline; self-study; and centering on the Divine.

Health Benefits of Yoga:

Yoga has both preventative and therapeutic benefits. It has been shown to offer both physical and mental benefits to the body and the mind. The many physical benefits of yoga are: it improves flexibility and muscle joint mobility; strengthens, tones, and builds muscles; corrects posture; strengthens the spine; eases back pain; improves muscular-skeletal conditions such as bad knees, tight shoulders and neck, swayback and scoliosis; increases stamina; creates balance and grace; stimulates the glands of the endocrine system; improves digestion and elimination; increases circulation; improves heart conditions; improves breathing disorders; boosts immune response; decreases cholesterol and blood sugar levels; and encourages weight loss.

The mental benefits include: it increases body awareness; relieves chronic stress patterns in the body; refreshes the body by relieving muscle strain; relaxes the mind and body; centers attention; sharpens concentration; and frees the spirit.

See some videos about yoga here :



Responsive design is a concept where you build your website once and then format it so it can adapt to any screen size that accesses it. It is not a trend. But it is how smart your site is!

Being responsive benefits:

1- Your website looks perfect on several devices.

2- Have centralized application appears everywhere. No need to develop additional mobile applications.

3- Good for SEO. Google ranks sites optimized for mobile higher in mobile searches.

4- 91% of US citizens have their mobile device within reach 24/7. And they are checking their phones an average of 150x a day!


5- Internet mobiles users are projected to take over desktop internet usage by 2015…or sooner.


Getting started:

1- Defining the HTML5 doctype and creating head section with the required scripts and CSS files. The doctype declaration in HTML5 is easier to remember compared to previous HTML/XHTML versions.


In head section set the charset to UTF-8 which is also easier in HTML5

<meta charset="UTF-8">

2- Add View port Meta tag

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>

initial-scale=1.0 fits the viewport to the dimensions of the device (device-width and device-height values), which is a good idea because the size of the viewport fits the dimensions of the device regardless of its orientation.

width=device-width size the viewport to always corresponds to the (fixed value) width of the device, and thus is distorted in landscape orientation because the right value should be “device-height” not “device-width” in landscape (and it’s worse on iPhone5 whose device-height value is 568px, compared to its 320px device-width).

Therefore, It is recommend to use initial-scale alone, not associated width=device-width. Because the combination of the two is problematic, and moreover I think than even only width=device-width is problematic.

You might first try to include both initial-scale and device-width. If that leads to problems in iOS or Android try removing either one of the properties. In case that still does not solve your problems try using the script here ( until your responsive design is displayed correctly on all devices.

3- Include CSS files

We will include several CSS files like:

- Reset the styles for all HTML elements by using reset.css (

- Our styling CSS file(s)

- Other plug-ins styles

4- Include jQuery and Javascript  files

We will include several .js files like:

- As we are using HTML5 and CSS3 features we need several scripts to make the features visible in all browsers. The first script we will be using is Modernizr.js, a feature detection library for HTML5 and CSS3. You can find it here [] be sure “html5shiv” and “Modernizr.load” are checked.

- Respond.js, a script which enables responsive design in Internet Explorer and other browsers which don´t support CSS Media Queries. That way we can use CSS3 properties by simply adding the general rule (e.g. just box-shadow instead of -moz-box-shadow, -webkit-box-shadow and box-shadow). You can find it here []

- prefix-free lets you use only unprefixed CSS properties everywhere. You can find it here []

- jQuery

<!-- include extern jQuery file but fall back to local file if extern one fails to load !-->
<script src=""></script>
<script type="text/javascript">window.jQuery || document.write('<script type="text\/javascript" src="js\/1.7.2.jquery.min"><\/script>')</script>

Note: You might want to use a minifier script which automatically combines, minifies and caches all your CSS and Javascript files into one single file. One of these scripts is called minify.js and can be found here []

5- Add media query inside your CSS

Media queries are used to skip or change CSS rules in minimum or maximum width of devices.

Google officially recommended CSS media query for smartphones is:
@media only screen and (max-width: 640px) { … }

Targeted media queries for smartphones (landscape), tablets (portrait), desktops (narrow) is:
@media screen and (min-width: 480px) and (max-width: 800px) {..}

Targeted media queries for smartphones (portrait) is :
@media screen and max-width: 479px){..}

Targeted media queries to adjust flows and looks on various devices is :
Landscape Mode :
@media all and (orientation: landscape) {…}

portrait Mode :
@media all and (orientation: portrait) {..}

Test how your site looks like on different devices resolutions:

-  Responsive Web design bookmarklet - It lets you view any webpage in multiple screen sizes, simulating the viewport of different devices.

- Traditional window resizing.