All those who are working in the business field should study marketing to a certain level because we are all working to satisfy the needs of our customers so how do you expect to satisfy a need that you don't understand? Or whom are you trying to satisfy? those are the kind of important questions you need to ask yourself, if your answer is I am trying to satisfy everyone interested in my field then you have to start thinking again because in each business domain, people are different and have different needs to satisfy and you cannot satisfy everybody but you have to know your targeted clients, identify their needs and understand where in the client mind you want to expose your edges.

Why would I care about this if I am a normal employee in the company?

Because every little detail happening inside or outside the company is concerned with the client satisfaction in a way or another, as an example if the designers in apple don't understand that their targeted clients have a need to feel prestigious they will be designing the IPhone like any normal mobile device but because they understand this need they invest a lot of money and effort to be different than their competitors and they use their recognition to this need to market it in their advertising campaign so you should invest some money and effort to understand your targeted clients’ needs to be able to better satisfy them than the competitors, and this is how you can increase your market share and profit without having to lean on assumptions because most of the time they will not be accurate.

Mina Lorance

How do viruses infect computers?

There are basically two ways that viruses and worms can infect a system: social engineering, and poorly designed software. Social engineering is the art of conning someone into doing something they shouldn't do, or revealing something that should be kept secret.

A user receives an email that looks like it’s coming from a known company and the body of the message informs the reader that the attached file is a critical update that should be applied immediately, OR the email contains an image attachment that turns out to be an executable with an image extension and poof the system is infected. Poorly designed software is seen in software vulnerabilities, bugs or even insecure logic. Poorly designed software makes it easier for social engineering to take place, but such software can also subvert the efforts of a knowledgeable, security-minded individual or organization. Together, the two factors can turn a single virus incident into a widespread disaster.

Why is linux safer?

Permissions on Linux are universal. They cover three things you can do with files: read a file, write to a file, and execute a file. Not only that, they come in three levels: for the root user (who can do anything he likes), for the individual user who is signed in (who would only have access to files he owns), and for the rest of the world (other). Typically, software that can impact the system as a whole requires root privileges to run because system files are only executable or writable by the user.

So for a Virus to mess a Linux system the following steps should occur, a Linux user would have to read the email, save the attachment, give the attachment executable permissions, and then run the executable.

Even as less sophisticated users begin to migrate to Linux, they may not understand exactly why they can't just execute attachments, but they will still have to go through the steps. Further, due to the strong separation between normal users and the privileged root user, our Linux user would have to be running as root to really do any damage to the system. He could damage his /home directory, but that's about it. So the above steps now become the following: read, save, become root, give executable permissions, run. The more steps, the less likely a virus infection becomes, and certainly the less likely a catastrophically spreading virus becomes.


Security is, as we all know, a process, not a product. So when you use Linux, you're not using a perfectly safe OS. There is no such thing; but Linux establish a more secure footing, one that makes it far harder for viruses to take hold in the first place; however, if one does take hold, it is harder to damage the system, if one succeeds in damaging the system; it is harder to spread to other machines and repeat the process.

When it comes to email-borne viruses and worms, Linux may not be completely immune - after all, nothing is immune to human gullibility and stupidity - but it is much more resistant. To mess up a Linux box, you need to work at it; to mess up your Windows box, you just need to work on it.


Writing a professional email is one of the most important skills we should have. You need to make sure your emails sound professional and well-mannered to make people respond to your emails in the way you want them to. So, I would like to share with you some small tips I have learned and that I'm trying to practice in Arkdev for writing a professional email.

  • Don’t type your recipient’s email until you are ready to send the message. That way you will never send an email before checking it.
  • The email subject must be clear and focused like newspaper headlines and recipient should know what the email is about from its subject.
  • If you want to reply to an email with the subject Meeting, you shouldn’t make the default subject “Re: Meeting”, it’s better to change the subject to a specific one like ‘Meeting about …….’.
  • Use some kind of greeting, don’t start your text first thing.


    • Here are some greetings, and you should choose the one match your recipient.

Dear Mr. Emad,
Hello Ms. Mary,
Hi John,

  • Don’t use any emotions, internet slang or abbreviations.
  • Avoid misspelling and grammar mistakes, use email client system checker before sending.
  • Format your message to small paragraphs to be easier for reading.
  • Make One Point per Email, don’t talk about a lot of different topics in the same email. For example, if you want to talk about meeting for getting missing requirements and some issues status, it’ better to send each topic in a separate email.
  • End your email with a professional sign off, like “Sincerely”, “Best regards”, or something similar.
  • End your email with a formal signature. Signature should contain your full name and some ways of contacting you like your email, website and phone numbers.
  • Using Cc: and Bcc: (‘carbon copy’ and ‘blind carbon copy’):


    • Use CC option if you want to send a copy of the email to another person at the same time.
    • It will be useful if the person receiving the copy is in a supervisory role. For example, copying your boss on an e-mail to a nonresponsive co-worker might prompt the co-worker to respond.
    • Both the original recipient and all the recipients of the carbon copies can see all the e-mail addresses in the "To:" and "Cc:" fields.
    • Use ‘BCC’ option if you don’t want the recipient in ‘to’ field to know the email address getting a copy of the email.
  • Go the extra mile by reading your email again before sending it.